Boba's origins can be traced back to the planet Kamino, the home of the Republic's clone army, led by the Jedi to fight against the Droid Army of the Confederacy of Independent Systems in the Clone Wars.
The clones were created using the gene template of the bounty hunter Jango Fett, who is Boba's "father." Boba is just another clone of Jango, albeit one with no accelerated aging, unlike the clones of the Republic's army.
Boba traveled with his father to the planet Geonosis, where he witnessed Jango's death at the hands of Jedi Master Mace Windu during a battle. In the prequel films, the last time we see Boba is him clutching his father's helmet in silence.
Boba would return in the prequel animated series Star Wars: The Clone Wars, where he secretly infiltrated a Republic starship hoping to kill Mace Windu and enact revenge. He would fail in this mission, evading capture at first but tracked down by Jedi Knights Plo Koon and Ahsoka Tano.
He was sentenced to serve a prison sentence on Coruscant but would eventually escape and begin his career as a bounty hunter. Boba would encounter characters like Bossk and Dengar, fellow bounty hunters who were initially introduced in Empire Strikes Back, during his young career.
Flash forward to the events of that film, and Boba is searching for Han Solo and the Millenium Falcon, hoping to cash in on a bounty put out by Jabba the Hutt. Working with Darth Vader and the Empire, he tracks Solo to the Cloud City of Bespin, where he captures him and delivers him to Jabba on the planet Tattoine.
In Return of the Jedi, Boba is still working with Jabba at his palace, where he does battle with Luke Skywalker and his allies on Jabba's barge. A blinded Han Solo damages his jetpack, and he crashes on the sand, falling into the mouth of the awaiting Sarlacc beast.